you're reading...
Negro Leagues

Evaluating Negro Leagues Pitchers, Part I: Brown, Cooper, Day, Dihigo

[All MLEs updated 7/4/18 to include (a) new 1938 and 1947 data (b) new baserunning-runs estimates(c) new, more objective playing-time estimates]

[Note: All MLEs here updated 1/1/18 due to changes in approach to pitcher batting.]

[Note: Updated 1/20/18 to include adjustment that accounts for general differences in pitcher-batting ability between MLB and Negro Leagues.]

We recently described to you our method for creating Major League Equivalencies (MLEs) for Negro Leagues pitchers. Today we start unveiling the results. This is the first of three posts in which we’ll share MLEs for Hall of Fame and Hall of Merit Negro Leagues pitchers in alphabetical order.

Today we’re going to cover Ray Brown, Andy Cooper, Leon Day, and Martín Dihigo.

Each MLE should not be too literally interpreted. There’s a lot of moving parts, and, yes, human error creeps in sometimes. We suggest looking first at the player’s career numbers than at the seasonals, the latter of which are more volatile and more likely to look funny to you. We’ll include information about some of the thornier issues in each man’s record along the way as well as provide some sense of what these players would like compared to MLB players. The reason for the latter is not to demean their actual performance in the leagues they played in, but rather to give you a sense of what their performance reminds us of and as a sanity check to be sure that we’re doing our job correctly. We invite you to tell us what you think in the comments so we can refine these estimates.

Ray Brown

[Note: Updated 1/14/18. Presence of highly skewed league data caused z-score translations to be appear artificially low. Fixed.]

Ray Brown was a durable righty in the 1930s and 1940s whose record on the Negro Leagues Database currently stands at 111-37 (.750) and a 145 ERA+ that sits eleventh among pitchers with at least 200 innings in the database. His 35.2 WAR rank second in among hurlers and his 1310 innings place ninth. Brown threw the kitchen sink at hitters and was most well known for his curveball. The mainstay of the dynastic Homestead Grays, he was known as a tough competitor but pleasant and quiet. He was also a favorite in Cuba and Puerto Rico where he racked up impressive records and was known as Jabao (freckled one). Not much is known about him personally because he died in 1965, just before intensive research got underway to interview Negro Leagues players before they passed on.

Ray Brown
Negro Leagues Stats | Minor Leagues Stats | Bio
Career: 1932–1951
Destination: NL 1932–1951
Missing data: 1950–1953, any Cuban or Puerto Rican winter seasons
Honors: Baseball Hall of Fame, Hall of Merit
               PITCHING          |  BATTING    |  TOTAL
YEAR  AGE   IP  RAA   WAA   WAR  |  PA    WAR  |   WAR
========================================================
1932   24  210  - 7  -0.7   1.5  |   70   0.4  |   1.9
1933   25  240  - 2  -0.3   2.1  |   80   0.5  |   2.6
1934   26  230  -14  -1.4   1.0  |   77   0.5  |   1.5
1935   27  220   25   2.6   4.8  |   73   0.4  |   5.2
1936   28  270   33   3.5   6.2  |   90   0.6  |   6.8
1937   29  260    7   0.8   3.4  |   87   0.5  |   4.0
1938   30  260    9   1.0   3.6  |   87   0.6  |   4.2
1939   31  260   21   2.3   4.9  |   87   0.5  |   5.4
1940   32  270   27   2.9   5.7  |   90   0.6  |   6.2
1941   33  250   29   3.3   5.7  |   83   0.5  |   6.3
1942   34  250   22   2.7   5.1  |   83   0.5  |   5.6
1943   35  160   22   2.6   4.1  |   53   0.3  |   4.4
1944   36  260    3   0.3   3.0  |   87   0.4  |   3.4
1945   37  210  - 3  -0.4   1.8  |   70   0.3  |   2.1
1946   38  200  -15  -1.7   0.3  |   67   0.4  |   0.7
1947   39  160  - 2  -0.2   1.4  |   53   0.3  |   1.7
1948   40  110    3   0.3   1.4  |   37   0.2  |   1.6
1949   41   40    2   0.2   0.9  |   23   0.1  |   1.1
1950   42   40    1   0.2   0.6  |   13   0.1  |   0.6
1951   43   10    1   0.1   0.2  |    3   0.0  |   0.2
-------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL     3940  160  18.0  58.0  | 1314   7.5  |  65.4

Hypothetical MLB career rankings (1871–1960)
Innings pitched: 26th
Pitching Wins Above Average: 78th
Pitching Wins Above Replacement: 32nd
Total Wins Above Replacement (pitchers only): t-20th

At this time, Brown’s best MLB comps are Red Ruffing and Burleigh Grimes. They also had the same strengths and weaknesses: Long careers, good-to-great great bats for a moundsman, and pretty good on the bump, itself, but not exactly Lefty Grove either. Ruffing is the upside, Grimes is the downside. Though he looks like more Ruffing than Grimes, lacking Old Stubblebeard’s tendency to ying and yang between good and poor seasons, and being at least twice as good a hitter. More like Ruffing in that sense as well.

I expected Ray Brown to come out looking like a higher-tier pitcher than he has. But there’s a couple things of interest here that appear to militate against that:

  1. Brown pitched in front of several teams with HUGE DRA totals, which he is debited for (though we cap at +/- 0.50 runs per nine innings).
  2. Because we use for our innings estimates the workload of a typical MLB pitcher, Brown may show fewer MLE innings than he might have racked up in MLB. He doesn’t appear to have much of an injury history and may well have been able to shoulder an ace’s load.
  3. He’s getting hurt by his 1934 season, which was short 22.33 IP and bad (60 ERA+). We haven’t manually adjusted for that here, but even just making him a league average pitcher for that year would add 4 WAR to his career MLE total. It’s possible that step is in order to bring him closer to the historical consensus.
  4. Brown was excellent in winter league play but because that data (especially the league-wide pitching data) is not available yet on the Negro Leagues Database, we haven’t included it. Brown seems unlikely to be elected in our first round of HoME Negro Leagues elections, but he will surely make it into the subsequent rounds. It may be that taking an independent dive into his Cuban seasons could help, though Puerto Rican information remains sketchy at this time.

 Andy Cooper

[Note: Updated 1/1/18 to fix a transcription error in 1925 (formerly 8.0 WAR, not corrected to 5.4 WAR).]

[Note: Updated 1/14/18. Presence of highly skewed league data caused z-score translations to be appear artificially low. Fixed.]

One of a pair of brothers to pitch in the Negro Leagues, Cooper had the profile of a big-league lefty: a wide repertoire of pitches all of which had wrinkle to them, thrown with pinpoint control, at a variety of speeds. And, of course, a good move to first. In other words, a classic finesse pitcher. Stylistically, players like Jimmy Key and Mark Buehrle spring instantly to mind. He made his bones with the Detroit Stars in the 1920s Negro National League but eventually signed on with the famous Kansas City Monarchs, forming an impressive trio with Hilton Smith and Satchel Paige at one juncture. He also managed the team.

Andy Cooper
Negro Leagues Stats | Bio
Career: 1920–1939
Destination: NL 1920–1936
Missing data: 1926–1927, 1929–1932
Honors: Baseball Hall of Fame
                PITCHING         |   BATTING   |  TOTAL
YEAR  AGE   IP  RAA   WAA   WAR  |   PA   WAR  |   WAR
=======================================================
1920   24  140    5   0.6   1.9  |   47  -0.4  |   1.5
1921   25  220    6   0.6   2.9  |   73  -0.4  |   2.4
1922   26  250   46   4.7   7.2  |   83  -0.3  |   6.9
1923   27  210   14   1.4   3.5  |   70  -0.4  |   3.1
1924   28  200   22   2.4   4.4  |   67  -0.5  |   3.9
1925   29  210   32   3.2   5.3  |   70  -0.3  |   5.1
1926   30  200   30   3.2   5.2  |   67  -0.4  |   4.8
1927   31  210   23   2.4   4.5  |   70  -0.4  |   4.2
1928   32  210   12   1.2   3.4  |   70  -0.3  |   3.1
1929   33  200   18   1.7   3.8  |   67  -0.2  |   3.6
1930   34  200   20   1.8   4.0  |   67  -0.2  |   3.7
1931   35  220   24   2.6   4.8  |   73  -0.3  |   4.5
1932   36  210   22   2.4   4.5  |   70  -0.3  |   4.2
1933   37  210   21   2.5   4.5  |   70  -0.4  |   4.1
1934   38  170   21   2.2   4.0  |   57  -0.2  |   3.8
1935   39   30    4   0.7   0.7  |   10   0.0  |   0.6
1936   40   10    2   0.3   0.3  |    3   0.0  |   0.3
-------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL     3100  320  33.5  65.0  | 1034  -4.9  |  60.0

Hypothetical MLB career rankings (1871–1960)

Innings pitched: 65th
Pitching Wins Above Average: 26th
Pitching Wins Above Replacement: 22nd
Total Wins Above Replacement (pitchers only): 32nd

Cooper’s 1925 translated RA9 is considerably lower than the qualified league leader in the NL. So we adjust him to 10% above the leader so we aren’t overshooting. His last two seasons also translated better than the leader, and even though we are nipping the innings down from an initial projection, we are still capping his RA9.

Cooper might look better in this MLE than he does on the Negro Leagues database. Part of the reason could be that our protocol substitutes the pitcher’s MLE-career average performance in instances where we have no data available to us. Much of the heart of Cooper’s career is missing, so he either currently looks worse on the Negro Leagues Database than he ought to, or he looks better in our MLE. We won’t know until we know. So the combination of lopping off a couple of lesser end-of-career seasons, giving him MLE-career average performance in missing seasons, and giving him more innings in his salad days makes him come forward a bit.

On the other hand, I translated him in 2005 at the Hall of Merit for 500 more innings than this MLE and a .560 win% (223-176). We didn’t have team and league stats at that time, nor did we have WAR. But if .560 represents his true performance level, then that’s 22 WAA in shorthand (10 runs per win, 22 wins or so above .500). So I’m coming in higher now than previously, but by enough to be covered by things like park factors and team defense. Another poster on BTF chipped in that they figured 223 Win Shares, if you remember them from early 2000s. Divide Win Shares by 3 for wins, and that’s 74, and maybe nip off some wins for sub-replacement performance since Win Shares doesn’t really deal with replacement much, if at all, and you’re in the same neighborhood we’ve arrived at here.

Overall, Andy Cooper has long particularly reminded me of Andy Pettitte: Long-career lefties who didn’t have great fastballs, who played on the dominant team of their times (the Monarchs being the Yanks of the Negro Leagues), who weren’t notably durable in-season but who generally stayed in the rotation, who had a big year or three, who were generally not All-Star type pitchers but nonetheless were above average for a long time in run prevention, and who were not typically the ace of their staff. Mark Buehrle might also fit this description. We’ve projected Cooper as a #3 starter for most of his career based on the number of starts he had on his real teams, but on virtually any other team he would have been a solid number two man. In that way, we could be coming in low on him bulk-wise.

Two final notes. First, some of the biographical data indicates that Andy Cooper might have hurt his arm in late 1930, though that’s contradicted by his participation and performance in the California Winter League that winter. Still, I hedged on 1931 and took his innings down a bit. Second, Cooper had an excellent record during a brief run as the Monarch’s manager in the late 1930s, winning three pennants.

Leon Day

[Note: Day’s 1952 MLE updated on 1/1/18 to correct a transcription error. It previously read 2.2 Total WAR and is now, correctly, listed at 1.5.]

[Note: Updated 1/6/18 to correct STDEV information for seasons in late 1930s to include all pitchers, not just ERA qualifiers; to use the manual adjustment on his 1943 season.]

[Note: All MLEs here updated 1/13/18 to include newly released data for 1946, which add about two WAA/WAR to his pitching totals; also updated batting for consistency of approach.]

[Note: Updated 1/14/18. Presence of highly skewed league data caused z-score translations to be appear artificially low. Fixed.]

[Note: Updated 1/23/18 to correct a tiny calculation error that resulted in +0.3 WAA/WAR and +3 RAA.]

Day struck out lots of hitters and was selected for seven East-West All-Star Games as the main man in the Newark Eagles’ rotation. In 586 innings, he struck out 402 hitters in the Negro Leagues, a rate of 166 per year, good for 9th among documented Negro Leagues seasons. He served two years during World War II, spent a couple seasons in Mexico, and in his final years toiled in the minor leagues.

Leon Day
Negro Leagues Stats | Minor Leagues Stats | Bio
Career: 1934–1953
Destination: NL 1935–1953
Missing Data: 1949, 1950
Honors: Baseball Hall of Fame, Hall of Merit
               PITCHING          |  BATTING    |  TOTAL
YEAR  AGE  IP   RAA   WAA   WAR  |   PA   WAR  |   WAR
=======================================================
1935   18   50    5   0.5   1.0  |   17   0.1  |   1.1
1936   19  100    9   0.9   1.9  |   33   0.2  |   2.1
1937   20  170  - 3  -0.3   1.4  |   57   0.3  |   1.7
1938   21  140  - 1  -0.1   1.3  |   47   0.3  |   1.6
1939   22  260   20   2.2   4.8  |   87   0.5  |   5.3
1940   23  230   20   2.2   4.5  |   77   0.4  |   4.9
1941   24  210   12   1.3   3.4  |   70   0.4  |   3.8
1942   25  180   27   3.3   5.0  |   60   0.3  |   5.4
1943   26  220   26   3.1   5.2  |   73   0.3  |   5.5
1944   27                        |             |
1945   28                        |             |
1946   29  260    4   0.4   3.0  |   87   0.5  |   3.5
1947   30  180  - 8  -0.8   1.1  |   60   0.3  |   1.4
1948   31  210  - 9  -1.1   1.2  |   70   0.4  |   1.6
1949   32  260    0   0.0   2.7  |   87   0.5  |   3.2
1950   33  160    2   0.2   1.8  |   53   0.3  |   2.1
1951   34   40    1   0.1   0.5  |   13   0.1  |   0.5
1952   35  160  - 6  -0.7   0.9  |   53   0.3  |   1.2
1953   36   30  - 5  -0.5  -0.2  |   10   0.1  |  -0.1
-------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL     2860   93  10.9  39.8  |  954   5.3  |  45.1

Hypothetical MLB career rankings (1871–1960)

Innings pitched: 90th
Pitching Wins Above Average: t-151th
Pitching Wins Above Replacement: 92nd 
Total Wins Above Replacement (pitchers only): 74th

Day hurt his arm in the offseason of 1937 and missed some time in 1938, which we’ve accounted for. He also missed 2 years and one September to the war. The tough spot in this MLE is 1937. In his SABR bio, Day and the author claim it as an outstanding year, something like 13-0. But on the Negro Leagues Database, we only have a few starts from him. Those starts are good not great, and when translated are roughly average. It is entirely possible that the Database simply doesn’t yet have his complete numbers for 1937. Day’s bio also says that he had a dead arm in 1946 after a two-year army layoff. Despite that, he pitched the whole year, and his stats that year from the Negro Leagues Database suggest he was in great form. His performance in Mexico in 1947 and 1948 certainly suggests he had lost something. The apparent rally in 1949 and 1950 is probably only because our protocol uses his career average due to no data for those seasons. He pitched reasonably well in the minors at ages 34 and 35, but at 36 was very clearly done.

As a hitter, he was excellent. Not as good as Ray Brown, but really good. In fact, in 1943, he spent a little time with the Philadelphia Stars in addition to the Eagles, but he didn’t pitch once for them. He was too busy in their lineup at second base.

These MLEs suggest that value-wise, he comps to a pitcher such as Howard Ehmke, only with a good bat. Or perhaps Red Lucas who had a great bat. Style-wise, not so much. Generally, that feels too flat for me, but until we see the rest of the data on him, we can’t say with certainty. But now that we have the 1946 data, we are missing only two summer seasons of information and whatever in-season data is not yet available. We are closing in on the point where we have a high degree of confidence that Day was not a Hall level pitcher.

Martín Dihigo

[Note: Updated 1/14/18. Presence of highly skewed league data caused z-score translations to be appear artificially low. Fixed.]

Last licks today for Martín Dihigo (pronounced Mar-TEEN DEE-go), a most interesting case. He’s famous for playing all the hell over the diamond, but he also had a substantial pitching career, and a good one. His evolution to starting pitcher, however, was slow. From 1923 (age 18) through 1931 (age 26), his appearances at pitcher amounted to 17% of his total games played, and he appears to have been used as a #4/5 or swing starter since he was incredibly useful elsewhere on the diamond. Then there’s a three-year blank spot where he toured with a team out of the Dominican, with no stats available. When he returned to the Negro Leagues in 1935–1936, he pitched in almost 30% of his games played, still holding down a regular job as a position player too. Beginning in 1937 he went down Mexico way, and in La Liga, he pitched in 40+% of his games, and, yes, continued to play the field as a regular until the very end. Which means that there’s two ways we can approach Dihigo’s career with MLEs. The first is that he was a pitcher all the way and would have followed a typical pitcher’s path in terms of workload. The other is just to run the numbers as is.

We’re presenting both versions so you can get an idea of the spread of potential we’re talking about here.

Martín Dihigo
Negro Leagues Stats | Bio
Typical pitching arc
Career: 1924–1947
Destination: NL 1924–1947
Missing data: 1929, 1932–1934
Honors: Baseball Hall of Fame, Hall of Merit, Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame, Mexican Baseball Hall of Fame
               PITCHING          |   BATTING   |  TOTAL
YEAR  AGE   IP   RAA   WAA   WAR |   PA   WAR  |   WAR
========================================================
1924   19   50    6   0.6   1.1  |   17   0.1  |   1.2
1925   20   80    5   0.4   1.3  |   27   0.2  |   1.5
1926   21  100  - 7  -0.7   0.4  |   33   0.3  |   0.6
1927   22  200  - 4  -0.4   1.7  |   67   0.6  |   2.3
1928   23   50  -14  -1.3  -0.8  |   17   0.2  |  -0.6
1929   24  180   12   1.1   3.0  |   60   0.5  |   3.5
1930   25  200   44   4.0   6.1  |   67   0.5  |   6.6
1931   26  220   15   1.6   3.9  |   73   0.6  |   4.5
1932   27  210   16   1.7   3.8  |   70   0.6  |   4.5
1933   28  210   12   1.4   3.5  |   70   0.6  |   4.1
1934   29  200   15   1.5   3.6  |   67   0.6  |   4.2
1935   30  190   24   2.5   4.4  |   63   0.5  |   4.9
1936   31  200   21   2.2   4.2  |   67   0.6  |   4.8
1937   32  260   23   2.5   5.1  |   87   0.8  |   5.9
1938   33  260   39   4.4   6.9  |   87   0.8  |   7.8
1939   34  260   19   2.0   4.7  |   87   0.8  |   5.5
1940   35  190    8   0.9   2.8  |   63   0.6  |   3.4
1941   36  190    8   0.9   2.8  |   63   0.6  |   3.4
1942   37  250    9   1.0   3.5  |   83   0.8  |   4.3
1943   38  220   33   4.0   6.1  |   73   0.4  |   6.5
1944   39  230   28   3.2   5.5  |   77   0.3  |   5.8
1945   40  210    3   0.3   2.4  |   70   0.6  |   3.0
1946   41  130  -25  -2.5  -1.2  |   43   0.2  |  -0.9
1947   42   50    7   0.7   1.2  |   17   0.4  |   1.6
-------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL     4340  297  32.2  75.9  | 1448  12.4  |  88.3

Hypothetical MLB career rankings (1871–1960)
Innings pitched: 17th
Pitching Wins Above Average: 28th
Pitching Wins Above Replacement: 13th
Total Wins Above Replacement (pitchers only): 8th

In both the versions we’re presenting, Dihigo’s 1930 translated RA9 is considerably lower than the qualified league leader in the NL. So we adjust him to 10% above the leader for reasonableness.

Worth noting that in this and the following MLE, we have given Dihigo 50 innings in 1928 because, well, he stank it up. Seems unlikely that he would have been given a long leash while allowing that many runs.

Here we have a player with a good if not phenomenal peak plus lots of bulk, and, of course, an excellent bat. This version of Dihigo looks like a little peakier version of Ted Lyons but with three times the bat. Heckuva package.

Martín Dihigo
As-is estimate
               PITCHING          |  BATTING    |  TOTAL
YEAR  AGE  IP   RAA   WAA   WAR  |  PA    WAR  |   WAR
=======================================================
1924   19   50    6   0.6   1.1  |   17   0.1  |   1.2
1925   20   80    5   0.4   1.3  |   27   0.2  |   1.5
1926   21  100  - 7  -0.7   0.4  |   33   0.3  |   0.6
1927   22  150  - 3  -0.3   1.3  |   50   0.4  |   1.7
1928   23   50  -14  -1.3  -0.8  |   17   0.1  |  -0.6
1929   24  150    9   0.9   2.4  |   50   0.4  |   2.9
1930   25  150   33   3.0   4.5  |   50   0.4  |   4.9
1931   26  140    9   1.0   2.4  |   47   0.4  |   2.8
1932   27  150   11   1.1   2.7  |   50   0.4  |   3.1
1933   28  130    8   0.9   2.2  |   43   0.3  |   2.5
1934   29  140   11   1.1   2.5  |   47   0.4  |   2.9
1935   30  150   18   1.9   3.4  |   50   0.4  |   3.8
1936   31  170   18   1.8   3.5  |   57   0.5  |   4.0
1937   32  260   23   2.5   5.1  |   87   1.7  |   5.9
1938   33  260   39   4.4   6.9  |   87   1.7  |   7.7
1939   34  260   19   2.0   4.7  |   87   1.7  |   5.4
1940   35  190    8   0.9   2.8  |   63   0.6  |   3.4
1941   36  190    8   0.9   2.8  |   63   0.6  |   3.4
1942   37  250    9   1.0   3.5  |   83   1.7  |   4.2
1943   38  220   33   4.0   6.1  |   73   0.4  |   6.5
1944   39  230   28   3.2   5.5  |   77   0.3  |   5.8
1945   40  210   12   1.3   3.5  |   70   0.6  |   4.1
1946   41  130  -25  -2.5  -1.2  |   43   0.2  |  -0.9
1947   42   60    8   0.9   1.5  |   20   0.4  |   1.9
-------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL     3870  267  29.1  67.9  | 1291  10.4  |  78.4

Hypothetical MLB career rankings (1871–1960)
Innings pitched: 28th
Pitching Wins Above Average: t-34th
Pitching Wins Above Replacement: 18th
Total Wins Above Replacement (pitchers only): 11th

Still kind of like Ted Lyons, only a little flatter peak this time. Same great bat as before, just in slightly less playing time.

Again, the difference here is all in the innings pitched. In the first version, we see a rough estimate of what he might have done with a more typical MLB career arc as a pitcher. The second version is much less interpretative and shows us how his pitching career was bifurcated between his American (through 1936) and Mexican (after 1936) experiences. Either way, he appears very strong, and it’ll be very interesting to see how his MLEs as a position player come out by comparison.

OK, that’s it for part one. Next time out, we’ll have a go at messers Foster, Foster, Mendéz, and Paige. And if you’re worried that you don’t see enough peak value in these performers, wait til part two. You won’t be disappointed.

Advertisements

Discussion

7 thoughts on “Evaluating Negro Leagues Pitchers, Part I: Brown, Cooper, Day, Dihigo

  1. I’m a little confused by something. You say that for seasons with missing data, you’re giving them league average performance. But I’m seeing very few seasons of 0.0 WAA. Are you using where you slot him as a starter average marks instead or what?

    Posted by Jim Albright | October 5, 2017, 11:26 am
  2. OK, I see I didn’t read it quite carefully enough. However, I think there’s a logical flaw in giving guys like Cooper their career average when we have very little information as opposed to not giving Day extra credit for his 1937 season because the fragmentary information we do have isn’t as impressive as the narrative is. Frankly, I’m more in line with the decision on Day than I am with Cooper. One of my guiding principles of projecting is to err on the side of caution, which you are clearly doing with Day. With Cooper, you’re giving his HOF case a boost, essentially for the reason you have less information. I think it would be better to assume a league average performance when you have no information. If you get more, it’s easier to justify a change upward. If you don’t, you aren’t helping his HOF cause with your assumption, and it is below Cooper’s known career average. In that case, it’s easy to argue you made a reasonable but conservative estimate.

    Moreover, even in barnstorming, if Cooper had a great season, it probably would have attracted more public notice. Day’s 1937 season attracted notice. Newspapers have always emphasized the remarkable. They’re not always right, but as is true of contemporary observations, they are more often right than wrong. It seems reasonable to say Cooper wasn’t better than average for those barnstorming years, and may have even been a little below that.

    Posted by Jim Albright | October 9, 2017, 7:06 am
  3. By way of amplification, I’d suggest some factors I use to deal with wartime absences: career average is one, league average another, and some element of seasons nearest the missing season (it makes a difference whether a guy is in his peak years or at the end of the road, and this element tries to account for this issue).

    Posted by Jim Albright | October 10, 2017, 10:12 pm

Trackbacks/Pingbacks

  1. Pingback: Evaluating Negro Leagues Pitchers, Part II: Foster, Foster, Mendéz, and Paige | the Hall of Miller and Eric - October 11, 2017

  2. Pingback: Evaluating Negro Leagues Pitcher, Part III: Rogan, Smith, and Williams | the Hall of Miller and Eric - October 18, 2017

  3. Pingback: Evaluating Negro Leagues Corner Outfielders | the Hall of Miller and Eric - December 20, 2017

Tell us what you think!

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Institutional History

Advertisements
%d bloggers like this: